Henri II Ivory Christ 16th C. on wood crucifix with reliquary 31 relics

Henri II Ivory Christ 16th C. on wood crucifix with reliquary 31 relics

16th Century Ivory Christ on wood crucifix with a 18th Cent. relicuary containing 31 Holy Relics; Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, The Apostles & some of the most relevant Saints in Christendom.

This interesting piece consist of three different items that deserves to be analysed and described separately:

- Spectacular Ivory Christ with a certificate of authenticity and age claimed to be property of former French King Henry II - XVI Century.

- Multi Reliquary at the base from the XVIII Century with the Holy Relics of The Column of Flagellation of Jesus Christ, The Dress of the Veil of The Virgin Mary, The Apostles and some of the most important Saints in Christendom.

- Wood Crucifix holding the above mentioned togheter from the XIX Century, with a signed document at the bottom from the Dean of Angouleme A. Descordes centifiying its authenticity and offering it to a dear friend (Baron Je. Pichon)
 

*More detailed info about the history and art of the piece in the section below "In-depth analysis". 
 

Below, you can a find the complete list of the holy relics contained in the relevant multi reliquary: 

 

  1. Column of Flagellation of Our Lord Jesus Christ

    As written in relic: Ex Col FL DNJC
     

  2. Veil of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    As written in relic: Ex Vello B.V.M.
     

  3. Saint Joseph - Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Legal father of Jesus, Prince and Patron of the Universal Church

    As written in relic: S. Josephi Sp
     

  4. Saint Philip the Apostle (Apostle and Martyr)

    As written in relic: S. Philippi. Ap
     

  5. Saint Simon the Zealot - Apostle, Martyr, Preacher

    As written in relic: S Simoni. Ap
     

  6. Saint Matthias - Apostle

    As written in relic: S. Matth. Apl
     

  7. Saint Judas Thaddaeus - Apostle and Martyr

    As written in relic: S thadd. Ap
     

  8. Saint Barnabas - Apostle, Apostolic Father and Martyr

    As written in relic:
     

  9. Saint Paul the Apostle - Apostle to the Gentiles and Martyr

    As written in relic: Saint Pauli Apol
     

  10. Saint James the Less - Apostle

    As written in relic: Saint Jacob. Min Ap
     

  11. Saint Peter - Apostle and Pope

    As written in relic: S. Petri Apol
     

  12. Saint Thomas the Apostle - Apostle, preacher, Christian martyr

    As written in relic: S. Thoma Ap
     

  13. Saint Andrew - Apostle and Martyr

    As written in relic: S. Andrea. Ap.
     

  14. Saint Bartholomew - Apostle and martyr

    As written in relic: S. Barthol. M
     

  15. Saint Mark the Evangelist - Evangelist, Martyr

    As written in relic: S. Marci. Ev
     

  16. Saint Luke - Evangelist and Apostle

    As written in relic:S. Luqai Ev.
     

  17. Saint Catherine of Siena - Virgin, Patron of Europe (Patrona Europae), Stigmatist, Doctor of the Church

    As written in relic: St. Cathari. Sin
     

  18. Saint Thomas Aquinas O.P. - Doctor of the Church

    As written in relic: S. Thom. Aq
     

  19. Saint Jerome - Hermit and Doctor of the Church

    As written in relic: S. Hieron. Doc
     

  20. Basil of Caesarea - Bishop, Confessor and Doctor of the Church; Great Hierarch and Cappadocian Father

    As written in relic: S Basil 
     

  21. Saint Gregory of Nyssa - Cappadocian Father

    As written in relic: Greg. N
     

  22. Saint Joanna - Myrrhbearer

    As written in relic: S. Joani Chz
     

  23. Saint Gregory of Nazianzus - Theologian, Doctor of the Church, Great Hierarch, Cappadocian Father, Ecumenical Teacher

    As written in relic: S. Greg  Th D
     

  24. St. Lawrence, Deacon and Martyr

    As written in relic: Laur. Lev. M
     

  25. Saint Stephen - Deacon & Protomartyr of The Faith

    As written in relic: S. Steph. Prot
     

  26. Saint Teresa of Ávila: Teresa of Jesus, Reverend Mother, Prioress, Virgin and First Woman Doctor of the Church

    As written in relic: S. Teresiae V.
     

  27. Saint Alexis of Rome - Confessor

    As written in relic: S. Alexii Conf
     

  28. Saint Philip Neri - Confessor and Founder of Congregation of the Oratory.

    As written in relic: S. Phillipi Neri
     

  29. Saint Francis of Assisi - Founder of the Franciscan Order (also called O.F.M. - Orders of Friars Minor).

    As written in relic: S. Franc. Assi
     

  30. Saint Vincent de Paul - Priest and founder of the Congregation of the Mission and Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul.

    As written in relic: S. Vinci. Paul
     

  31. Saint Benedict of Nursia - O.S.B. - Religious, Exorcist, Mystic and Abbot - Founder of the Benedictine Order

    As written in relic: S. Bened Abb.
     

  32. Saint Charles Borromeo

    As written in relic: S. Carolli. Bo 

 

The relic of Saint Vincent de Paul, who was beatified in 1729 and canonized in 1737. Gives us the post-quem date for this oval reliquary jewel: circa 1740.

 

Attached to the base of the crucifix, the following document attest the authenticity of the relics and the age of the ivory sculpture in French says: 

 

Transcription:

 

Le christ, que j’ai envoyé à Mr le baron,

Je Pichon, 17: quai d’Anjou à Paris,

a été déclaré par les connaisseurs un

christ Henry II. Angoulême 7 juillet

1881.

L. L. M. J. A. Descordes, chanoine

 

Translation:

 

The crucifix, which I have sent to Baron

Jérôme Pichon, at 17 quai d’Anjou in Paris,

has been declared by the experts to be a

crucifix of Henry II. Angoulême. 7th July

1881.

L. L. M.* J[oseph] A[rmand] Descordes, canon

 

*Perhaps “LL. M.” [=Legum Magister, Master of Laws]


*See the official translation attached as well as more info on the Personalities involved with the signed document in the following Section "In-depth analysis".


 

  • IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS

    Splendid and rare high class ivory sculpture, whose anonymous author demonstrates a keen interest in anatomy, perfection of the form and the study of the nude, showing the left thigh uncovered. The author participates in the new artistic canon of the XVI Century to which the four-studded corpus cristi is incorporated, the Christ is crucified with a nail to each of his extremities (instead of the usual three, one across the 2 feets and one on each hand ).

     

    Dürer introduced this cannon for the first time in an engraving from 1523 and his theory was disseminated by Francisco Pacheco, father-in-law of Velázquez, in his “Art of Painting'' in Spanish “Arte de la pintura”, published in Seville in 1649. To these qualities must be added the graceful hanchement or contrapposto, of Gothic and Mannerist influence, that the sculptor has been able to carefully represent in his work taking advantage of the natural curvature of ivory. As for the analysis of iconographic symbols, the right hand of Christ stands out blessing in the pontifical way, with only the index and middle fingers raised and the other three collected.

     

    The mutilation of the left hand in no way overshadows the beauty and interest of this exceptional piece, to which is added the prominence of the patina, the signature of the passage of time, which makes things so beautiful.In our opinion, this 16th century work is representing the passage of the Fourth Word, among the Seven phrases that Christ pronounced on the cross: “My Father, why have you abandoned me!”.

    The base on which the crucifix is attached seems to be a convent made chest built to contain relics embedded in the front. There is a parallel in the Cistercian monastery of Santa María de San Salvador de Cañas (La Rioja) Spain, a 17th century work.

    On the front of this chest, there is a multi reliquary theca from the 18th century, oval, made of brass with a single stained glass window protecting the interior. Inside, in a half-moon structure in trimmed vellum and silver bullion garnish, there are 31 Holy Relics carefully placed and structured in three orders plus one Relic at the center of Our Lord Jesus Christ.

    At the base you can see the cover where the chest opened, currently sealed and pasted on it, attached to it the following document attesting the authenticity of the relics and the age of the ivory sculpture in French that says: 

    Transcription:

    Le christ, que j’ai envoyé à Mr le baron,
    Je Pichon, 17: quai d’Anjou à Paris,
    a été déclaré par les connaisseurs un
    christ Henry II. Angoulême 7 juillet

    1881.

    L. L. M. J. A. Descordes, chanoine

     

    Translation:

     

    The crucifix, which I have sent to Baron
    Jérôme Pichon, at 17 quai d’Anjou in Paris,
    has been declared by the experts to be a
    crucifix of Henry II. Angoulême. 7th July

    1881.

    L. L. M.* J[oseph] A[rmand] Descordes, canon

    *Perhaps “LL. M.” [=Legum Magister, Master of Laws]

    Personalities involved with the signed document:

    1) Léon Joseph Armand Descordes (Sept. 7, 1801 - Apr. 2, 1894) 

    Dean of the Cathedral Chapter of Angoulême, signatory ecclesiatical authority, provider of the piece to and friend of collector Baron Jérôme Pichon.

    French biography available: "Biographie Anecdotique de M. le Chanoine Descordes, Doyen du Chapitre de la Cathédrale d'Angoulême" [=Anecdotal Biography of Canon Descordes, Dean of the Cathedral Chapter of Angoulême], which was written by the Abbot J. P. G. Blanchet in 1896, two years after the death of the Canon Léon Joseph Armand Descordes (Sept. 7, 1801 - Apr. 2, 1894): https://bit.ly/2Xtccyp

    I can provide relevant excerpts from this biography, which may be of special interest. Including the original French text along with official English translations, this includes the sections about his birth and death as well as a section about his art collection.

     

    2) Baron Jérome-Frédéric Pichon (3 December 1812 – 26 August 1896) 

    Was a 19th-century French bibliographer and bibliophile. He was one of the most important French art collectors of his time. President of the Société des bibliophiles français (SBF) in 1844.

     French biography available:

     

    •  “Le Baron Jerome Pichon Président Honoraire de la Sociétés des Bibliophiles François 1812 - 1896 Notice suivie de la Bibliographie de ses travaux par Georges Vicaire” [= Baron Jerome Pichon Honorary President of the Society of French Bibliophiles 1812 - 1896 Notice followed by the Bibliography of his work by Georges Vicaire]
       https://bit.ly/3gLsJ8e


    • Historical Library of the City of Paris, archived manuscript letter from the Baron Jerome Pichon mentioning correspondence with the Dean Léon Joseph Armand Descordes
      https://bit.ly/3cuVFOy

     

    Attached, in the photo gallery, you will also find copies of the correspondance between the above mentioned personalities mentioning the ivory christ. These letters are keep in The Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris, but we will send a paper copy of the originals

     

  • SHIPPING

    Shipping and Insurance provided by DHL Express 48h service included in the price (FREE). Get your item at home in 48h. 

    Professional packaging. If you want us to arrange it as a gift, let us know. We will attach a gift card with a customized message from you free of charge!    

  • PROVENANCE & CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICITY

    Customs and the buyer will be provided with the following documents:

    - CITES official statement for the legal import of antique ivory outside the European Union.

    - Document of Authenticity and age from a third party certified appraisal. (English)

    - Notary signed translation of the signed note at the bottom of the crucifix.(English/French)

    - Paper copy of letters between Mr. Descordes & Baron J. Pichon (The Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris) mentioning the aforementioned Christ with their corresponding transcription in French.

  • HISTORY OF THE SAINTS

    History of the Saints 

    • Column of Flagellation

      During the medieval crusades, it was very common to take spoils from Jerusalem and bring them back to Rome. The column where Christ was tortured and flagellated, corresponding to one of the episodes of the Passion of Christ, was taken from the Holy Land, and brought to Rome in 1222 by Cardinal Giovanni Colonna the Younger—a member of the powerful Colonna family during the 13th century. Given to him by the King of Jerusalem after the Fourth Crusade. Colonna brought the column back to Santa Prassede, the Basilica in Rome. The history of the column before 1222, however, is unclear.

      The Flagellation of Christ, sometimes known as Christ at the Column or the Scourging at the Pillar, is a scene from the Passion of Christ very frequently shown in Christian art, in cycles of the Passion or the larger subject of the Life of Christ. It is the fourth station of the modern alternate Stations of the Cross, and a Sorrowful Mystery of the Rosary. The column to which Christ is normally tied, and the rope, scourge, whip or birch are elements in the Arma Christi.
       

    The Church of the Flagellation, at the supposed site in Jerusalem, was rebuilt in 1839 and again in 1929.
     

    • Veil of Virgin Mary

      The Veil of Mary is an oblong piece of silk that Mary is reported to have worn during the Annunciation of Jesus' birth by the angel Gabriel, or during her labor and delivery of Jesus.
       

    • Saint Joseph - Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Legal father of Jesus, Prince and Patron of the Universal Church

      Death: c. 1

      Patron of: Catholic Church, unborn children, fathers, immigrants, workers, employment, explorer, pilgrims, traveller, carpenters, realtors, against doubt and hesitation, and of a happy death, Belgium, From the State of Ceará and the city of Macapá in Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Korea, Indonesia, Zapotlan in Mexico, Vietnam, Tagbilaran City, Bohol, Mandaue City, Bailen, Cavite, Cebu, Philippines, and many others

      History of saint

      Joseph is a figure in the canonical gospels who was married to Mary, Jesus' mother, and was Jesus' legal father. 



    •  

    Joseph is regarded as the patron saint of workers and is associated with various feast days. The month of March is dedicated to Saint Joseph. Pope Pius IX declared him to be both the patron and the protector of the Catholic Church, in addition to his patronages of the sick and of a happy death, due to the belief that he died in the presence of Jesus and Mary.

     

    • Saint Philip the Apostle (Apostle and Martyr)

      Death: 80 AD
       

    Patron of: Cape Verde; Hatters; Pastry chefs; San Felipe Pueblo; Uruguay
     

    • Saint Simon the Zealot - Apostle, Martyr, Preacher

      Death: ~65 or ~107

      Patron of: curriers; sawyers; tanners.
       

    • Saint Matthias - Apostle 

      Death: c. AD 80

    Patron of: alcoholics; carpenters; tailors; Gary, Indiana; Great Falls-Billings, Montana; smallpox; hope; perseverance

    History of the Saint:

    Matthias was chosen by the apostles to replace Judas Iscariot following the latter's betrayal of Jesus and his subsequent death. His calling as an apostle is unique, in that his appointment was not made personally by Jesus, who had already ascended into heaven, and it was also made before the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the early Church.
     

    • Saint Judas Thaddaeus - Apostle and Martyr

      Death: 1st century AD
       

    Patron of: Armenia; lost causes; desperate situations; hospitals; St. Petersburg, Florida; Cotta; the Chicago Police Department; Clube de Regatas do Flamengo from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Lucena, Quezon, Sibalom, Antique, and Trece Mártires, Cavite, the Philippines; and Sinajana in Guam.

     

    • Saint Barnabas - Apostle, Apostolic Father and Martyr

      Death: reputedly 61 AD
       

    Patron of: Cyprus, Antioch, against hailstorms, invoked as peacemaker.
     

    • Saint Paul the Apostle - Apostle to the Gentiles and Martyr

      Death: c. 64 or c. 67 A
       

    Patron of: Missionaries, theologians, evangelists, and Gentile Christians. He is also the patron of Malta.

     

    History of the Saint

     

    Saint Paul was an apostle (although not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world. Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age and he founded several Christian communities in Asia Minor and Europe. He took advantage of his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences.
     

    Paul persecuted some of the early disciples of Jesus, in the area of Jerusalem prior to his conversion. Then, Paul was traveling on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to "arrest them and bring them back to Jerusalem" when the resurrected Jesus appeared to him in a great light. He was struck blind, but after three days his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah and the Son of God.
     

    • Saint James the Less (Apostle)
       

    Death: 62 AD
     

    Patron of: of Hat makers.
     

    • Saint Peter - Apostle and Pope

      Death: between AD 64 and 68
       

    Patron of: Bakers, Bridge builders, Butchers, Fishermen, Harvesters, Cordwainers, Horologists, Locksmiths, Cobblers, Net makers, Shipwrights and Stationers. Also called for aid in Frenzy, Foot problems, Fever and Longevity..


    History of the Saint

    Also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and the first leader of the early Church.

     

    Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero. He is traditionally counted as the first bishop of Rome‍ - pope ‍ - and also by Eastern Christian tradition as the first patriarch of Antioch. According to Catholic teaching, in Matthew 16:18 Jesus promised Peter a special position in the Church.


     

    • Saint Thomas the Apostle - Apostle, preacher, Christian martyr

      Death: 3 July AD 72


    Patron of: India, Saint Thomas Christians, Sri Lanka, and Pula in Croatia

     

    History of the Saint:

    Thomas the Apostle was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, commonly known as "Doubting Thomas" because he doubted Jesus' resurrection when first told of it. Later, he confessed his faith, "My Lord and my God," on seeing Jesus' crucifixion wounds.

     

    Thomas is believed to have travelled outside the Roman Empire to preach the Gospel, travelling as far as the Malabar Coast reaching Muziris (India). In 1258, some of the relics were brought to Ortona, in Abruzzo, Italy, where they have been held in the Church of Saint Thomas the Apostle. He is often regarded as the patron saint of India.
     

    • Saint Andrew - Apostle and Martyr

      Death: 62 AD
       

    Patron of: Places: Scotland, Barbados, Georgia, Ukraine, Russia, Greece, Cyprus, Romania, Patras, Burgundy, San Andrés (Tenerife), Diocese of Parañaque, Telhado, Sarzana, Pienza, Amalfi, Luqa (Malta) and Prussia. 

    Professions: Fishermen, fishmongers and rope-makers, textile workers, singers,miners, pregnant women, butchers, farm workers, protection against sore throats,

    Protection against: convulsions, protection against fever, protection against whooping cough.

     

    • Saint Bartholomew - Apostle and martyr

      Death: 1st century AD
       

    Patron of: Armenia; bookbinders; butchers; Florentine cheese and salt merchants; Gambatesa, Italy; Catbalogan, Samar; Magalang, Pampanga; Malabon, Metro Manila; Nagcarlan, Laguna; San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija, Philippines; Għargħur, Malta and Los Cerricos (Spain).

    Professions: Leather workers; neurological diseases; plasterers; shoemakers; curriers; tanners; trappers; twitching; whiteners.


     

    • Saint Mark the Evangelist - Evangelist, Martyr

      Death: 25 April 68 

    Patron of: Barristers, Venice, Egypt, Mainar

     

    History of the Saint

    Mark the Evangelist is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the most important episcopal sees of early Christianity.
     

    • Saint Luke (Evangelist and Apostle)

      Death: March 84 AD
       

    Patron of: Artists, bachelors, bookbinders, brewers, butchers, doctors, glass makers, glaziers, gold workers, goldsmiths, lace makers, lace workers, notaries, painters, physicians, sculptors, surgeons, unmarried men, Worshipful Company of Butchers, Worshipful Company of Painters
     

    • Saint Catherine of Siena - Virgin, Patron of Europe (Patrona Europae), Stigmatist, Doctor of the Church

      Death: 29 April 1380

      Patron of: Against fire; bodily ills; Diocese of Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA; Europe; illness; Italy; Bambang, Nueva Vizcaya, Samal, Bataan, Philippines; miscarriages; people ridiculed for their piety; sexual temptation; sick people; sickness; nurses

      History of the Saint

      Catherine of Siena was a laywoman associated with the Dominican Order, mystic, activist, and author who had a great influence on Italian literature and the Catholic Church. Canonized in 1461, she is also a Doctor of the Church.



    •  

    She was born and raised in Siena, and at an early age wanted to devote herself to God, against the will of her parents. She joined the Dominican tertiaries. She made herself known very quickly by being marked by mystical phenomena such as invisible stigmata and a mystical marriage.Her influence with Pope Gregory XI played a role in his decision to leave Avignon for Rome. She was then sent by him to negotiate peace with Florence. She dictated to secretaries her set of spiritual treatises The Dialogue of Divine Providence. The Great Schism of the West led Catherine of Siena sent numerous letters to princes and cardinals to promote obedience to Pope Urban VI and defend what she calls the "vessel of the Church." She died on 29 April 1380, exhausted by her penances. 

     

    The devotion around Catherine of Siena developed rapidly after her death. She was canonized in 1461, declared patron saint of Rome in 1866, and of Italy (together with Francis of Assisi) in 1939. She was the first woman (along with Teresa of Ávila) to be declared a "doctor of the Church," on 4 October 1970 by Pope Paul VI. She was also proclaimed patron saint of Europe in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. Catherine of Siena is one of the outstanding figures of medieval Catholicism, by the strong influence she has had in the history of the papacy and her extensive authorship. She was behind the return of the Pope from Avignon to Rome, and then carried out many missions entrusted by the pope, something quite rare for a woman in the Middle Ages. Her Dialogue, hundreds of letters, and dozens of prayers, also give her a prominent place in the history of Italian literature.


     

    • Saint Thomas Aquinas O.P. - Doctor of the Church

      Death: 7 March 1274

      Patron of: Academics; against storms; against lightning; apologists; Aquino, Italy; Belcastro, Italy; book sellers; Catholic academies, schools, and universities; chastity; Falena, Italy; learning; pencil makers; philosophers; publishers; scholars; students; University of Santo Tomas; Sto. Tomas, Batangas; Mangaldan, Pangasinan; theologians.

      History of the saint:

      Saint Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. An immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, he is also known within the latter as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis. The name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio, Italy. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism; of which he argued that reason is found in God. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory.



    •  

    Unlike many currents in the Church of the time, Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle—whom he called "the Philosopher"—and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity.

    His best-known works are the Disputed Questions on Truth (1256–1259), the Summa contra Gentiles (1259–1265), and the unfinished but massively influential Summa Theologica a.k.a. Summa Theologiae (1265–1274). His commentaries on Scripture and on Aristotle also form an important part of his body of work. Furthermore, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Church's liturgy. The Catholic Church honors Thomas Aquinas as a Saint and regards him as the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood, and indeed the highest expression of both natural reason and speculative theology. In modern times, under papal directives, the study of his works was long used as a core of the required program of study for those seeking ordination as priests or deacons, as well as for those in religious formation and for other students of the sacred disciplines (philosophy, Catholic theology, church history, liturgy, and canon law).

     

    Saint Thomas Aquinas is considered one of the Catholic Church's greatest theologians and philosophers. Pope Benedict XV declared: "This (Dominican) Order ... acquired new luster when the Church declared the teaching of Thomas to be her own and that Doctor, honored with the special praises of the Pontiffs, the master and patron of Catholic schools." The English philosopher Anthony Kenny considers Thomas to be "one of the dozen greatest philosophers of the western world"

     

    • Saint Jerome - Hermit and Doctor of the Church

      Death:  30 September 420

      Patron of: Archaeologists; archivists; Bible scholars; librarians; libraries; school children; students; translators; Morong, Rizal

      History of the Saint
       

    Saint Jerome (Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus), also known as Jerome of Stridon was a Latin priest, confessor, theologian, and historian. 


    Jerome was born at Stridon, a village near Emona on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia. He is best known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin (the translation that became known as the Vulgate), and his commentaries on the Gospels. His list of writings is extensive.

     

    Jerome was known for his teachings on Christian moral life, especially to those living in cosmopolitan centers such as Rome. In many cases, he focused his attention on the lives of women and identified how a woman devoted to Jesus should live her life. This focus stemmed from his close patron relationships with several prominent female ascetics who were members of affluent senatorial families.

     

    • Basil of Caesarea - Bishop, Confessor and Doctor of the Church; Great Hierarch and Cappadocian Father

      Death: January 1 or 2, 379

      Patron of: Russia, Cappadocia, Hospital administrators, Reformers, Monks, Education, Exorcism, Liturgists

      History of the saint       

    Also called Saint Basil the Great, was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). He was an influential theologian who supported the Nicene Creed and opposed the heresies of the early Christian church, fighting against both Arianism and the followers of Apollinaris of Laodicea. His ability to balance his theological convictions with his political connections made Basil a powerful advocate for the Nicene position.

     

    In addition to his work as a theologian, Basil was known for his care of the poor and underprivileged. Basil established guidelines for monastic life which focus on community life, liturgical prayer, and manual labor. Together with Pachomius, he is remembered as a father of communal monasticism in Eastern Christianity. He is considered a saint by the traditions of both Eastern and Western Christianity.

     

    Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa are collectively referred to as the Cappadocian Fathers.
     

    • Saint Gregory of Nyssa - Cappadocian Father

      Death: c. 395

      History of the Saint:
       

    Gregory of Nyssa, also known as Gregory Nyssen was bishop of Nyssa from 372 to 376 and from 378 until his death. Gregory, his elder brother Basil of Caesarea, and their friend Gregory of Nazianzus are collectively known as the Cappadocian Fathers.

     

    Gregory lacked the administrative ability of his brother Basil or the contemporary influence of Gregory of Nazianzus, but he was an erudite theologian who made significant contributions to the doctrine of the Trinity and the Nicene Creed. Gregory's philosophical writings were influenced by Origen. Since the mid-twentieth century, there has been a significant increase in interest in Gregory's works from the academic community, particularly involving universal salvation, which has resulted in challenges to many traditional interpretations of his theology.

     

    • Saint Joanna - Myrrhbearer

      History of the saint 


    Joanna was a woman mentioned in the gospels who was healed by Jesus and later supported him and his disciples in their travels, one of the women recorded in the Gospel of Luke as accompanying Jesus and the twelve and a witness to Jesus' resurrection.

    Joanna was the wife of Chuza, steward to the king Herod Antipas while being listed as one of the women who "had been cured of evil spirits and infirmities" who accompanied Jesus and the Apostles, and "provided for Him from their substance". Theologian Adrian Hastings suggested that she could have been one of Luke's sources for information regarding the Herodian court. As the wife of an important court official, she would have had sufficient means needed to travel and contribute to the support of Jesus and the disciples.

    Joanna is named among the women mentioned in Luke , who, along with Mary Magdalene and Mary, the mother of James, took spices to Jesus' tomb and found the stone rolled away and the tomb empty.
     

    • Saint Gregory of Nazianzus - Theologian, Doctor of the Church, Great Hierarch, Cappadocian Father, Ecumenical Teacher

      Death: 25 January 390

      History of the Saint
       

    Gregory of Nazianzus, also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age. As a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church, establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians and church officials. 

     

    Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology among both Greek- and Latin-speaking theologians, and he is remembered as the "Trinitarian Theologian". Much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity. Along with the brothers Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa, he is known as one of the Cappadocian Fathers.

     

    In the Roman Catholic Church he is numbered among the Doctors of the Church.
     

    • St. Lawrence, Deacon and Martyr

      Death: 10 August AD 258

      Patron of: Comedians, archivists, librarians, students, miners, tanners, chefs, Balagtas, Bulacan, Balangiga, Eastern Samar, roasters, poor, firefighters, Rome, Rotterdam (Netherlands), Huesca (Spain), San Lawrenz, Gozo and Birgu (Malta), Barangay San Lorenzo San Pablo (Philippines), Canada, Sri Lanka,

      History of the Saint

      Saint Lawrence or Laurence (Latin: Laurentius) was one of the seven deacons of the city of Rome, Italy, under Pope Sixtus II who were martyred in the persecution of the Christians that the Roman Emperor Valerian ordered in 258.

      That year, 258 A.D., It was characterized by a difficult beginning for what would become the First Christian Millennium. Hostility against the early followers of Jesus Christ was growing. The barbarism and severity of pagan Rome had begun to reach a fever pitch. It would soon lead to a blood lust. The newborn Christian Church, faithful to the One who had given Himself for the life of the world, continued the work of His redemption.

      The day that Deacon Lawrence experienced his birth from death to life was an ominous and frightful day in ancient Rome. Four days earlier, the great Bishop of Rome, Sixtus, was arrested by soldiers of the emperor Valerian, along with his beloved deacons, and beheaded.


    Valerian had issued an edict to the Roman Senate that all the Christian clergy-bishops, priests and deacons-were to be arrested and executed. There were so many holy people among the martyrs of early Rome. That makes it even more remarkable that the life and death of this one humble Deacon-Lawrence-is attributed with all of Rome becoming Christian.


    According to the Christian tradition, Deacon Lawrence, knowing that the fervor of Valerians' hatred was extending to all Christians who owned property, began to give it all away. He distributed the money and treasures of the Church to the city's poor-believing the clear admonition of the Savior that they were blessed and especially loved by Him.
     

    Valerian heard the news and wanted the treasure to satisfy his unbridled lust for worldly power. So, he offered Deacon Lawrence a way out of sure death. If he would show him where the Church's great gold and silver were located, he would issue an order of clemency, sparing his life so that he could continue his work.


    Valerian was delighted when the deacon asked for three days to gather all the gold and silver of the Church together in one central place! His pride and greed filled blinded him from seeing the truth.


    For three days, Deacon Lawrence went throughout the city and invited all the beloved poor, handicapped, and misfortunate to come together. They were being supported by a thriving early Christian community who understood the Gospel imperative to recognize Jesus in the poor.


    When Valerian arrived, Deacon Lawrence presented him with the true gold and silver of the Church, the poor! The emperor was filled with rage! Beheading was not enough for this Christian Deacon. He ordered Deacon Lawrence to be burned alive, in public, on a griddle. Witnesses recorded the public martyrdom. The deacon cheerfully offered himself to the Lord Jesus and even joked with his executioners!


    The tradition records massive conversions to the Christian faith as a result of the holy life and death of one Deacon who understood the true heart of his vocation. He was poured out, like his Master, Jesus Christ the Servant, in redemptive love, on behalf of others. It is still said to this day that all of Rome became Christian as a result of the faithful life, and the death, of this one humble deacon. He was buried in a cemetery on the Via Tiburtina. On that spot, Constantine would later build a Basilica.

     

    • Saint Stephen - Deacon & Protomartyr of The Faith

      Death: AD 33-37 (aged 28-32)

      Patron of: Altar Servers; Acoma Indian Pueblo; casket makers; Cetona, Italy; deacons; headaches; horses; Kessel, Belgium; masons; Owensboro, Kentucky; Passau, Germany; Kigali, Rwanda; Dodoma, Tanzania; Serbia; Republic of Srpska; Prato, Italy

      History of the saint:
       

    Stephen, traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity, was according to the Acts of the Apostles a deacon in the early church at Jerusalem who aroused the enmity of members of various synagogues by his teachings. Accused of blasphemy at his trial, he made a speech denouncing the Jewish authorities who were sitting in judgment on him and was then stoned to death. His martyrdom was witnessed by Saul of Tarsus, a Pharisee who would later become a follower of Jesus and known as Paul the Apostle.

     

    The only primary source for information about Stephen is the New Testament book of the Acts of the Apostles. Stephen is mentioned in Acts 6 as one of the Greek-speaking Hellenistic Jews selected to participate in a fairer distribution of welfare to the Greek-speaking widows.

     

    • Saint Teresa of Ávila: Teresa of Jesus, Reverend Mother, Prioress, Virgin and First Woman Doctor of the Church

      Death: 4 or 15 October 1582

      Patron of: Spain, sick people, people in religious orders, people ridiculed for their piety, lacemakers, Požega, Croatia, Talisay City, Cebu, Philippines



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    HIstory of the Saint


    Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, was a Carmelite nun, prominent Spanish mystic, religious reformer, author, theologian of the contemplative life and mental prayer, she earned the rare distinction of being declared the first female Doctor of the Church over four centuries after her death.Active during the Catholic Reformation, she reformed the Carmelite Orders of both women and men.The movement she initiated was later joined by the younger Spanish Carmelite friar and mystic, John of the Cross. It led eventually to the establishment of the Discalced Carmelites.

     

    • Saint Alexis of Rome - Confessor

      Death: 5th Century

      Patron of: Alexians; beggars; belt makers; nurses; pilgrims; travellers; Kalavryta

      HIstory of the Saint

      Alexius was the only son of Euphemianus, a wealthy Christian Roman of the senatorial class. Alexius fled his arranged marriage to follow his holy vocation. Disguised as a beggar, he lived near Edessa in Syria, accepting alms even from his own household slaves, who had been sent to look for him but did not recognize him, until a miraculous icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary (later this image was called Madonna of St.Alexius) singled him out as a "Man of God."
       

    Fleeing the resultant notoriety, he returned to Rome, so changed that his parents did not recognize him, but as good Christians took him in and sheltered him for seventeen years, which he spent in a dark cubbyhole beneath the stairs, praying and teaching catechism to children. After his death, his family found a note on his body which told them who he was and how he had lived his life of penance from the day of his wedding, for the love of God.


     

    • Saint Philip Neri - Confessor and Founder of Congregation of the Oratory.

      Death: 25 May 1595
       

    Patron: Rome, Candida (Italy), Mandaluyong, US Special Forces, Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest, Piczon Vill, Catbalogan, laughter, humour, joy

     

    History of the Saint

    Philip Romolo Neri, , known as the Third Apostle of Rome, after Saints Peter and Paul, was an Italian priest noted for founding a society of secular clergy called the Congregation of the Oratory (also known as Oratorial Fathers).

    Philip’s family were nobility in the service of the state. He was carefully brought up, and received his early teaching from the friars at San Marco, the famous Dominican monastery in Florence. At the age of 18, Philip was sent to his uncle, Romolo, a wealthy merchant at San Germano (now Cassino), a then Neapolitan town near the base of Monte Cassino, to assist him in his business, and with the hope that he might inherit his uncle's fortune. He gained Romolo's confidence and affection, but soon after coming to San Germano, Philip had a religious conversion. From then onward, he no longer cared for things of the world, and decided in 1533 to live in Rome. There he began those labours amongst the sick and poor which, in later life, gained him the title of "Apostle of Rome". He also ministered to the prostitutes of the city. Around 1544, he made the acquaintance of Ignatius of Loyola. Many of Philip's disciples found their vocations in the infant Society of Jesus

     

    • Saint Francis of Assisi - Founder of the Franciscan Order (also called O.F.M. - Orders of Friars Minor).
      Religious, Deacon, Confessor, Stigmatist and Religious Founder


      Death: 3 October 1226
      Patron of: Stowaways, Italy, Ecology, Animals

      History of the Saint

      Francis of Assisi was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women's Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis and the Custody of the Holy Land. What led him to become one of the most venerated religious figures in Christianity.



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    Pope Gregory IX canonized Francis on 16 July 1228. Along with Saint Catherine of Siena, he was designated Patron saint of Italy. He later became associated with patronage of animals and the natural environment, and it became customary for churches to hold ceremonies blessing animals on or near his feast day of 4 October. In 1219, he went to Egypt in an attempt to convert the Sultan to put an end to the conflict of the Crusades. By this point, the Franciscan Order had grown to such an extent that its primitive organizational structure was no longer sufficient. He returned to Italy to organize the Order. Once his community was authorized by the Pope, he withdrew increasingly from external affairs.

    Francis is also known for his love of the Eucharist. In 1223, he arranged for the first Christmas live nativity scene. According to Christian tradition, in 1224 he received the stigmata during the apparition of Seraphic angels in a religious ecstasy, which would make him the second person in Christian tradition after St. Paul  to bear the wounds of Christ's Passion. He died during the evening hours of 3 October 1226, while listening to a reading he had requested of Psalm 142.
     

    • Saint Vincent de Paul - Priest and founder of the Congregation of the Mission and Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul.

      Death: 27 September 1660
       

    Patron of: Charities, horses, hospitals, leprosy, lost articles, Madagascar, prisoners; Richmond, Virginia; spiritual help, Saint Vincent de Paul Societies, Sacred Heart Cathedral Preparatory, Vincentian Service Corps and volunteers.

     

    History of the saint

     

    Vincent de Paul was a French Catholic priest who dedicated himself to serving the poor. He was renowned for his compassion, humility, and generosity. Founder of Congregation of the Mission and Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul.


     

    • Saint Benedict of Nursia - O.S.B. - Religious, Exorcist, Mystic and Abbot - Founder of the Benedictine Order

      Death: c. AD 21 March 547
       

    Patron of: He is a patron saint of Europe. Also: Against poison, Against witchcraft, Agricultural workers ,Cavers, Civil engineers, Coppersmiths, Dying people, Erysipelas, Farmers, Fever, Gallstones, Heraldry and Officers of arms, the Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest, Inflammatory diseases,

    Italian architects, Kidney disease, Monks, Nettle rash; Norcia, Italy; People in religious orders; Schoolchildren and students; Servants who have broken their master's belongings, Speleologists, Spelunkers, Temptations.

     

    History of the Saint

     

    Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, Lazio, Italy, before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy. The Order of Saint Benedict is of later origin and, moreover, not an "order" as commonly understood but merely a confederation of autonomous congregations.

    Benedict's main achievement, his "Rule of Saint Benedict", contains a set of rules for his monks to follow. Heavily influenced by the writings of the monk John Cassian, it shows strong affinity with the Rule of the Master, but it also has a unique spirit of balance, moderation and reasonableness, which persuaded most Christian religious communities founded throughout the Middle Ages to adopt it. As a result, his Rule became one of the most influential religious rules in Western Christendom. For this reason, Giuseppe Carletti regarded Benedict as the founder of Western Christian monasticism.



     

    • Saint Charles Borromeo


    Death: 3 November 1584

    Patron of: Against ulcers; apple orchards; bishops; catechists; catechumens; colic; intestinal disorders; Lombardy, Italy; Monterey California; cardinals; seminarians; spiritual directors; spiritual leaders; starch makers; stomach diseases; São Carlos city in Brazil (as the name indicates)

    History of the saint:

    Carlo Borromeo, was the Latin archbishop of Milan from 1564 to 1584 and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was a leading figure of the Counter-Reformation combat against the Protestant Reformation together with St. Ignatius of Loyola and St. Philip Neri. In that role he was responsible for significant reforms in the Catholic Church, including the founding of seminaries for the education of priests.
     

  • CONDITION

    Beautiful 400 years patina that really shows its age. Remarkable condition according to the antiquity of the item. Accidents on the left hand of the Christ.

$4,750.00Price